Here will be explained the two notions of curvature involved in geometry, and needed in the description of our space-time by General Relativity :
When following a curve, its direction (tangent vector) can vary.
The angle of deviation of this direction for an arc of a smooth
curve S near a given point P, is usually
proportional to its length, either exactly (in the case of an arc
of circle), or approximately (the approximation getting better as
the arc is smaller). The extrinsic curvature of S at P
is defined as the ratio of this deviation (proportionality
Limit (for small arcs of S containing P),
of (Angle of deviation (in radians) / Arc length).
For a subspace S of E, the
extrinsic curvature of S in E is the measure of
how a curve "straight inside S" is curved inside E.
When S has dimension > 1, this curvature is generally not a single quantity but a multidimensional
object, as it gives a direction orthogonal to (the tangent
subspace of) S as a (quadratic) function of the chosen
direction of curve inside S (precisely, if n = dim
S and m = dim E then the extrinsic
curvature has n(n+1)(m−n)/2
coordinates). But it may be summed up as a single quantity when it
is the same in all directions.
The Gaussian curvature is the intrinsic curvature for the
particular case of a surface (2-dimensional space), where it is a
The Gaussian curvature can be thought of as a "density of
angles", as follows.
In any surface (2-dimensional space, only approximately Euclidean
in small scales), the sum of angles (in radians) of any triangle,
may differ from π. For example, on Earth, a triangle made of a
part of the equator and of 2 meridians, has two right angles, and
the remaining angle (at the pole) can have any value.
More generally, the parallel transport along any closed curve induces a rotation with angle α, which in the case of a triangle coincides with this difference of angles:
In the case of a (2-dimensional) sphere with radius r
inside a 3-dimensional Euclidean space, this angle α is
proportional to the area A of the surrounded region,
according to the formula
α = r-2 A
There are different ways to describe this field. The standard,
"mathematical" way, is by properties of the covariant derivative
operator, that is the operator describing the variations of any
vector field at the neighborhood of each point.
Generally, metaphorically describing a field as something to be "measured" at every point, the variations of a field of any kind of objects (vectors or something else), are described by a linear operator from the space of "speed vectors" of a measuring device passing through the given point, whose value (inside the vector space where the field takes values) is the speed of variation of the measured value of the field.
The covariant derivative of a vector field at every point, is the
"most faithful" picture of the variation of the field around this
point, in the sense that it only fits with the partial derivatives
of this field if we choose a coordinates system which is specially
"least distorted" near this point.
The properties of the covariant derivative, differs from those of the partial derivatives in any fixed coordinates system, because (if the curvature is nonzero), a coordinates system cannot be "least distorted" in all the neighborhood of a point, so that in the neighborhood we cannot keep a fixed coordinates system that makes the covariant derivative directly given by partial derivatives.
In other words, the variations measured by partial derivatives, are those coming from the affine structure of the space that is given by the chosen coordinates system; but that affine structure is that of a flat geometry, with no curvature, that is not the one we want to study.
But now we are going to give an intuitive description of the curvature, by extending to higher dimensions the above idea of parallel transport along a curve.For every little loop near a point, let us imagine it as a solid loop that we cut at a point and then move into a flat geometrical space. Both ends of the cut, that initially coincided, are now apart from each other.
The operation which to each pair of (small) vectors, associates the (small) rotation produced by the parallel transport along a small parallelogram whose direction is given by these vectors, is a bilinear, antisymmetric function of these vectors.
The small rotations (values of this function), can be themselves identified as bilinear antisymmetric forms, described by antisymmetric matrices.
To describe the Riemann curvature by coordinates, let us take an
approximate "Cartesian coordinates system" of a small neighborhood
(in the case of cosmology, it is "small" compared to the universe,
but big compared to the galaxy ;-). In fact, we shall use these
names of coordinates as the labels of pairwise orthogonal axis in
that neighborhood. Then, each pair of axis defines a small
parallelogram in this neighborhood.
The space of bilinear antisymmetric forms of an n-dimensional space, has dimension n(n-1)/2, corresponding to the pairs of coordinates.
In the case n=4, such as our space-time with coordinates (x,y,z,t), we have 6 pairs : (x,y), (x,z), (y,z), (x,t), (y,t), (z,t).
Putting all together, the curvature can be described by a tensor
with 4 indices, forming two antisymmetric pairs. In coordinates,
each component of the Riemann curvature must be labelled by 2
pairs of coordinates :
So, the Riemann curvature around each point of a 4-dimensional
space, in an approximately Cartesian coordinate system around that
point, is described by a symmetric 6×6 matrix where each line and
each column is labelled by a pair of coordinates.
A special case of curved geometrical spaces, is those with a with
constant curvature, equivalently defined by
Now we are ready to explain the expansion of the Universe
in General Relativity.
The space of symmetric 6×6 matrices has dimension 6×7/2=21.
But the Riemann curvature tensor cannot take any value there, as
it is subject to one relation, letting its possible values vary
with dimension 20 instead of 21.
This relation says that the "totally antisymmetric" part of that tensor, defined as the sum of components labelled ((x,y),(z,t)), ((y,z),(x,t)) and ((z,x),(y,t)), cancels.
The reason for this, together with that of the symmetry by the
exchange of both pairs, can be explained by the way in which the
curvature is calculated from the metric structure of the space.
The metric structure is the field which, at each point, gives the local geometric structure (the locally Euclidean or Minkowskian structure, beyond the mere locally affine structure given by the smoothness of the space). The value of this field at each point is thus a symmetric bilinear form between tangent vectors at this point (intuitively, speed vectors for particles passing by), that define the (local) dot product between them.
In a given coordinates system (or equivalently, in a map of the
considered space into a flat space - we can make it fit on first
approximation around a point, so that the first derivatives of the
metric cancel at this point... for a reason a bit technical to
explain), the curvature is calculated from the second derivatives
of the metric.
The symmetry of the metric, together with the symmetry of the second derivatives in a coordinate system, naturally affects the result of such an expression, that just "cannot produce anything dissymetric" from symmetric entries. The details of this argument, require the understanding of tensor calculus.